Principles of Prayer
by Francis Foulkes ©



  1. Jacques Ellul, Prayer and Modern Man (Seabury, New York, 1970), ch.3
  2. Patrick D. Miller, They cried to the Lord (Fortress, Minneapolis, 1994), pp.304ff.

Chapter 1

  1. O. Hallesby, Prayer, (I.V.F., London, 1948), ch.1
  2. T.E.Fretheim in P.R.Sponheim (ed.) A Primer on Prayer, (Fortress, Philadelphia, 1988), p.53
  3. Mark Gibbard, Love and Life's Journey, (Mowbray, London, 1987), p.8
  4. Selwyn Hughes in David Hanes (ed.) My Path of Prayer, (Henry E. Walter, Worthing, 1981), p.43.
  5. Ibid., p.56
  6. A. Bloom, Living Prayer, (Darton, Longman and Todd, London, 1966), p.13

Chapter 2

  1. John Polkinghorne, Science and Providence, (S.P.C.K., London, 1989), P.70
  2. Ibid.p.71.
  3. Catherine Marshall, Adventures in Prayer, (Chosen Books, Old Tapper N.J., 1965), pp.14f.
  4. Vincent J. Donovan, Christianity Rediscovered, (S.C.M., London, 1982), p.136
  5. For example see Vincent Brummer, What are we doing when we pray? (S.C.M., London, 1984), p.44. See also Patrick D. Miller,op.cit., p.280.
  6. H.E. Fosdick, The Meaning of Prayer, (Collins, London, 1960 repr.), p.80. The place of prayer in the purposes of God is considered from the point of view of a scientist in John Polkinghorne's Science and Providence referred to above, from the point of view of a New Testament scholar in Oscar Cullmann's Prayer in the New Testament (S.C.M., London, 1995), and from a more philosophical point of view in Peter Baelz, Prayer and Providence, (S.C.M., London, 1968).
  7. Vincent Brummer, op.cit., pp.65f.
  8. S.F. Winward, Teach yourself to pray, (Hodder, London, 1961), pp.14f.
  9. Leroy T. Howe, Prayer in a secular world, (Pilgrim Press, Philadelphia, 1973), p.73
  10. Ibid., p.38
  11. K. Barth, Prayer and Preaching, (S.C.M., London, 1964), pp.14f.

Chapter 3

  1. On the Hebrew terms used for prayer see Patrick D.Miller,op.cit., pp.32-48.

Chapter 4

  1. See S.F. Winward, op.cit., chs. 5-10. Mark Gibbard, op.cit., pp.67ff. gives his analysis as adoration, reconciliation, thanksgiving, intercession, prayer for oneself, trust.
  2. Vincent Brummer, op.cit., pp.112f.

Chapter 5

  1. Mark Gibbard, op.cit., p.vii
  2. Karl Barth, op.cit., pp.18f.
  3. Leroy T. Howe, op.cit., p.13
  4. R.E. Clements, The Prayers of the Bible, (S.C.M., London 1985), p.1
  5. Mark Gibbard, op.cit., pp.31f.
  6. Leroy T. Howe, op.cit., p.50
  7. Tom Wright, The Lord and his prayer, (S.P.C.K., London, 1996), p.21
  8. E.M. Bounds, The Weapon of Prayer, (Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1975), p.78
  9. J. V. Taylor, The Go-between God, (S.C.M., London, 1972), p. 225
  10. Samuel Chadwick, The Path of Prayer, (Hodder, London, 1931), p.34
  11. W, Barclay, The Gospel of John Vol.2 (Saint Andrew Press, Edinburgh, 1955), pp.192f. Cf. Michael Ramsey, Be still and know (Collins, London, 1982), p.45
  12. Simon Barrington Ward, C.M.S. News Letter December 1978, C.M.S., London
  13. See illustrations of this in Anne J. Townsend, Prayer without pretending, (Scripture Union, London, 1973), pp.70ff.
  14. Graham Redding, in Considering Orthodoxy ed.Paul Trebilco (Colcom, Orewa, N.Z., 1995), pp.84f.

Chapter 6

  1. Thomas Merton, No man is an island (Image Books, New York, 1967), p.171,
  2. E.M. Blaiklock, Our Lord's Teaching on Prayer, (Oliphants, London, 1964), p.12. See also Olive Wyon, Prayer, (Collins, London, 1962), ch.1
  3. Paul R. Sponheim, A Primer on Prayer, ed. Sponheim, p.71

Chapter 7

  1. J.M. Houston, The Transforming Friendship (Lion, Oxford, 1989), p.163
  2. Samuel Chadwick, The Path of Prayer, (Hodder, London, 1931), p.17
  3. Daniel Jenkins, Prayer and the Service of God, (Faber and Faber, London, 1943), pp.40f.
  4. H.E. Fosdick, op.cit., p.67
  5. Catherine Marshall, op.cit., pp.44-49, gives examples from Scripture and experience of the benefits of people learning to wait on God in relation to the life of prayer.
  6. Anthony Bloom, Living Prayer, (Darton, Longman and Todd, London, 1966) pp.93f.
  7. Stephen Winward, op.cit. p.79
  8. H.E. Fosdick, op.cit., p.140
  9. Quoted in R. Pooley and P. Seddon (eds.), The Lord of the Journey, (Collins, London, 1986), pp.216f
  10. E.M.Blaiklock, op.cit., 11 and 13
  11. Stephen Winward, op.cit., p.17
  12. Anthony Bloom, op.cit., p.31

Chapter 8

  1. Anthony Bloom, op.cit., p.82
  2. R.E.Clements, op.cit, p.36
  3. On using the Lord's Prayer as a structure on which to build one's prayer life, see Michael Green, New Life, New Lifestyle, (Hodder, London, 1973), pp.67f.
  4. Martin Luther, `A simple way to pray for a good friend', quoted in The Lord of the Journey (see above), p.217
  5. See E.M. Blaiklock, op.cit., pp.22f., and the scholarly discussion of the question in Oscar Cullmann, op.cit., pp.40ff.
  6. Tom Wright, op.cit., p.7
  7. It is true that there are differences between the original text of the Lord's Prayer in Matthew 6 and in Luke 11, and the "our" and "in heaven" are not in the best texts of Luke 11. As the prayer was used in the life of the early Church, and so the ways in which it came to be expressed in different early manuscripts, came to differ in different places, but little is at stake. The "our" is present in several of the later clauses of the Prayer, and both the nearness and the transcendence of God can be assumed from the prayer as a whole.
  8. K. Barth, op.cit., pp.28ff.
  9. Institutes 3.xx.41
  10. Tom Wright, op.cit., p.22
  11. M. Gibbard, op.cit., pp.87-88
  12. David L. Tiede in A Primer on Prayer, ed.Paul R. Sponheim, p.117
  13. R.E. Clements, op.cit., p.21
  14. Leroy T. Howe, op.cit., p.58
  15. See H.E. Fosdick, op.cit., p.147
  16. See Oscar Cullmann, op.cit., pp.51-54
  17. A.J. Hultgren in A Primer of Prayer, ed. P.R.Sponheim, p.31
  18. Archbishop Michael Ramsey, Be still and know, (Collins, London, 1982), p.51, aptly comments on the words, "Sanctify them in the truth", `There is no holiness apart from the theology which he reveals, and there is no imparting of the theology except by consecrated lives --.'
  19. Kenneth Grubb, A Layman looks at the Church, (Hodder, London, 1964), p.147
  20. Daniel Jenkins, op.cit., pp.66f.

Chapter 9

  1. George Martin, Reading Scripture as the Word of God, (Servant, Ann Arbor, 1975), p.77. Martin deals helpfully with this theme with many practical suggestions. He commends `the ancient Christian tradition of "reading, thinking, praying",' and the use of the words of Scripture in our prayers, most especially the Psalms and the other great prayers of Scripture.
  2. D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Faith on Trial (I.V.F., London, 1965), pp.41f.
  3. Daniel Jenkins, op.cit., pp.74f.
  4. Ibid., p.76
  5. Ibid., p.78
  6. Quoted by V. Brummer, op.cit., p.113
  7. J.J. Higgins, Thomas Merton on Prayer (Doubleday, New York, 1973), p.139
  8. Ibid., p.151
  9. T. Merton, Contemplative Prayer (Darton, Longman and Todd, London, 1973), pp.139-143
  10. Ibid, p.92
  11. L. Newbigin, Honest Religion for Secular Man, (S.C.M., London, 1966), pp.146-152
  12. K. Barth, op.cit., p.28
  13. Loren E. Halvorson in A Primer on Prayer, ed.Paul R. Sponheim, p.95
  14. Daniel Jenkins, op.cit., p.91
  15. Loren E. Halvorsen, op.cit, p.91
  16. Ibid ., p.93
  17. T. Merton, op.cit., p.92
  18. Amy Carmichael, Edges of his ways, (S.P.C.K., London, 1967), p.194
  19. Leroy T. Howe, op.cit., p.86
  20. Max Warren, The Truth of Vision (Canterbury Press, London, 1948), pp.110f.
  21. J.D.Douglas (ed.), The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church (Paternoster, Exeter, 1974), pp.691f.
  22. Daniel T. Jenkins, op.cit., p.41
  23. Ibid., p.42
  24. John W. Doberstein, The Minister's Prayer Book, (Collinson, London, 1964), p.xvi
  25. Jurgen Moltmann, The Open Church, (S.C.M., London, 1978), p.44
  26. James Houston, op.cit., p.116

Chapter 10

  1. V. Brummer, op.cit., p.72
  2. For illustrations of this see Francis Schaeffer, Death in the City, (I.V.F., London, 1969), pp.115-116
  3. C.M.S. Fellowship of Prayer, Melbourne, September 1967
  4. E.M. Blaiklock, op.cit, p.9
  5. J.I. Packer in My Path of Prayer, ed. David Hanes, p.63
  6. Anthony Bloom, op.cit., p.122

Chapter 11

  1. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Life Together, (S.C.M., London, 1954), p.79
  2. Anthony Bloom, School for Prayer pp.26ff.
  3. Stephen Winward has a helpful chapter on the strengths of extempore prayer and also of the benefits of using set forms in his Teach yourself to pray, pp.95-101, where he writes of praying from the Psalter, the Hymnal, the Liturgy, and on making one's own prayer book.
  4. Anthony Bloom, op.cit., p.29
  5. Ibid., p.46
  6. See Patrick D. Miller, op.cit., pp.263-265 and 276-277
  7. See James Houston, op.cit., pp.277f.
  8. Tom Wright, op.cit., p.34.


  1. The place of prayer in the life of Jesus is shown in particular in Luke's Gospel (3:21, 4:42, 5:16, 6:12. 9:18 and 29), as also it is said there that it was when Jesus had been praying that his disciples asked him to teach them to pray (11:1).